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Samenvatting course Neuroscience van basis tot kliniek bachelor medische biologie aan de Radboud universiteit
Samenvatting Neuroscience: van basis tot kliniek.
The dilemma of neuroscience How can we improve our understanding of the brain and can treat or prevent neurological disorders in the future? Fundamental researchdepends on animal models •Most efficient research is invasive •Genetic modification: KO or knock in •Experiments are usually harmful or fatal Clinical research Has to rely on human subjects •Very limited set of methodologies applicable •Study groups very heterogeneous •Depends on the results from basic research How to link fundamental & (pre)clinical research? •To which extent is human and animal physiology compatible? •How to mimic human neurological disorders in animal models? •How to link molecular and cognitive aspects?
Aim: translational research
College 1: Cortical parcellation The cerebral cortex is crucial for higher cognitive functions: sensory perception, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and in humans: conscious thought and language. The cortex is a complex network at many levels •biochemical •distributed regional activity •complex cognitive processes Basic element: THE NEURON •cell type-specific functions •form specific microcircuits •microcircuits form macrocirciuts pathways •numerous different classes The cortex consists of interacting network modules •
Network modules exist on different scales
Larger network modules are structurally formed by different neuron classes and their distribution patterns
Structurally defined network modules usually represent functional network
Pathophysiology can affect cortical networks on ALL scales
The connections between specific sets of neurons define network modules, which can exist on different scales, again functionally as well as structurally
The various cortical areas, each of which are defined by its functional and structural specificity (Different parts of the cortex are involved in different cognitive functions). The main “classes” of areas: •Sensory areas •Motor areas and •Association areas. Definition & identification of cortical areas. Can be defined by:
Function: an area is activated by the same kind of stimulus or is involved into similar
Structure: an area shows a typical anatomical structure (e.g. cytoarchitecture) Knowing the structural aspects of cortical areas is a crucial precondition for correct
interpretation of functional data!
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