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BYU MMBIO 221 Final Exam Questions and Answers Graded A 2024-2025

BYU MMBIO 221 Final Exam Questions  and Answers Graded A 2024-2025

The three types of antigens that are used to serotype enteric bacteria. - O-outer
K- capsular antigen
H- flagella
Cause most nosocomial infections.
General characteristics of a coliform. - -Rapidly ferment lactose.
-Part of normal microbiota.
-May be opportunistic.
-Aerobic or facultatively anaerobic.
-Found in soil and plants.
-Presence in water = impure water and poor sewage treatment.
Brucella melitensis - -CDC select agent.
-Causes brucellosis in people= bang's disease.
-Undulant fever.
-Causes abortive disease in animals.
-Illness is characterized by a fluctuating fever.
Bordetella pertussis - -Causes pertussis, also called whooping cough.
-Death by anoxia.
-Most cases of disease are in children.
-Produce various adhesions and toxins, including pertussis toxin, that mediate the
-Bacteria are first inhaled in aerosols and multiply in epithelial cells.
-Then progress through four stages of disease.
-Attaches to ciliated epithelial cells through 2 adhesions (filamentous hemagglutinin
and pertussis toxin).
-Produces 4 toxins:
--Pertussis toxin- increased mucus production.
--Adenylate cyclase toxin- increased mucus production and inhibition of leukocyte
--Dermonecrotic toxin- constriction and hemorrhage of blood vessels.
--Tracheal cytotoxin- inhibits cilia movement and kills ciliated cells.
Bacteroides fragilis - -85% of all GI disease.
-Normal microbiota of intestinal tract and upper respiratory.
-Infection is due to it getting into the bloodstream.
Borrelia recurrentis - -RELAPSING FEVER (Epidemic releasing fever).
-Infected humans are only natural reservoirs.
Burkholderia mallei - -Not found in the environment.
-Etiologic agent of glanders in horses.
-Also causes serious human infections.
-May have evolved from B. pseudomallei since it's genome is almost 1.5 Mbp
-B. mallei are CDC select agents.
Burkholderia pseudomallei - -Gram negative rod; a frank pathogen of humans and
-Etiologic agent of melioidosis.
-Symptoms are highly variable and can be confused with tuberculosis, plague,
malaria, syphilis, amebic hepatitis, pneumonia, endocarditis, typhoid, and cholera.
-Fatality rate can be as high as 95%.
-Infectious dose is very low.
-A soil organism endemic to Indian Ocean rim countries ( Thailand, Northern
Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, etc.).
-Wide host range (birds, all mammals).
-Infection rates increase with heavy rains or excavation.
-Persons with immunosuppressive diseases have the highest mortality, especially
Bartonella quintana - -Trench fever (5-day fever).
-Prevalent in soldiers in WWI.
-Spread person to person by human body lice.
-Also causes disease in immunocompromised patients.
-Symptoms include severe headaches, fever, and pain in the long bones.
-Fever can return every 5 days.

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