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NR546 Actual Final Exam graded A+ Latest updated recently

NR546 Actual Final Exam graded A+ Latest updated recently

NR546 Actual Final Exam graded A+ Latest updated recently


Which of the following is considered the pleasure center of the brain?
A. Cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical loop
B. Mesolimbic dopamine pathway
C. Mesocortical dopamine pathway
D. None of the above - B. Mesolimbic dopamine pathway

A 35-year-old cigarette smoker would like to quit but is nervous because she typically craves a cigarette approximately every 2 hrs. The craving and withdrawal are due to:
A. Desensitization of nicotinic receptors
B. Resensitization of nicotinic receptors
C. Desensitization of muscarinic receptors
D. Resensitization of muscarinic receptors - D. Resensitization of muscarinic receptors

The reactive reward system signals the immediate prospect of pleasure or pain and triggers drug-seeking behavior.
A. True
B. False - True

What role does the amygdala play in substance abuse?
A. Releases phasic bursts of dopamine to the nucleus accumbens when drugs of abuse are present
B. Communicates to the ventral tegmental area when cues related to drugs of abuse are present C. Site of binding for most drugs of abuse
D. A and B
E. A, B, and C - B. Communicates to the ventral tegmental area when cues related to drugs of abuse are present

A 45-year-old patient has tried unsuccessfully to quit smoking several times over the past ten years.
Nicotine's actions at which receptors are considered primarily responsible for its reinforcing effects?
A. Alpha 4 beta 2 postsynaptic receptors in the ventral tegmental area
B. Alpha 7 postsynaptic receptors in the prefrontal cortex C. A and B
D. Neither A nor B - A. Alpha 4 beta 2 postsynaptic receptors in the ventral tegmental area

A 35-year-old cigarette smoker would like to quit but is nervous because she typically craves a cigarette approximately every 2 hrs. The craving and withdrawal are due to:
A. Desensitization of nicotinic receptors
B. Resensitization of nicotinic receptors
C. Desensitization of muscarinic receptors
D. Resensitization of muscarinic receptors
B. Resensitization of nicotinic receptors - B. Resensitization of nicotinic receptors
A 44-year-old patient has schizophrenia and comorbid alcohol abuse disorder. Alcohol has what effect on GABA and glutamate in the ventral tegmental area?
A. Increases GABA and decreases glutamate
B. Increases both GABA and glutamate
C. Decreases GABA and increases glutamate
D. Decreases both GABA and glutamate - A. Increases GABA and decreases glutamate

A 26-year-old patient with ADHD has recently entered a drug rehabilitation center following arrest for possession of cocaine. The cocaine use in this patient may be an attempt at self-medication for ADHD symptoms because it inhibits the dopamine transporter (but is not itself taken up into the neuron by the transporter). Thus, cocain

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