Samenvatting van alle verplichte artikelen van het vak 1JM06 Human Aspects of Innovation aan de TU/e:
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Amabile (1998): How to kill creativity
De Drue, Nijstad and Baas (2010): Creativity in Individuals and Groups: Basic Principles with Practical Implications
Byron, Khazanchi and Nazarian (2010): The Relationship Between Stressors and Creativity: A Meta-Analysis Examining Competing Theoretical Model
Gevers and Demerouti (2013): How Supervisors Reminders relate to Subordinates Absorption and Creativity
Zhang and Bartol (2010): Linking Empowering Leadership and Employee Creativity: The Influence of Psychological Empowerment, Intrinsic Motivation and Creative Process Engagement
Gibson & Gibbs (2006): Unpacking the Concept of Virtuality: The effects of Geographic dispersion, electronic dependence, dynamic structure, and national diversity on team innovation
Hoever, Knippenberg, van Ginkel & Barkema(2012): Fostering Team Creativity: Perspective taking as Key to Unlocking Diversitys potential
Kearney & Gebert (2009): Managing Diversity and Enhancing Team Outcomes: The promise of Transformational Leadership
Grant (2011): Motivating creativity at work: The necessity of others is the mother of invention
Burroughs, Dahl, Moreau, Chattopadhyay & Gorn (2011): Facilitating and Rewarding Creativity During New Product Development
Catmull (2008): How Pixar Fosters Collective Creativity
Amabile (1998): How to kill creativity
Creativity gets killed much more often than it gets supported. For the most part, this isnt because managers have a
vendetta against creativity. On the contrary, most believe in the value of new and useful ideas. However, creativity is
undermined unintentionally every day in work environments that were established to maximize business
imperatives such as coordination, productivity and control. Managers cannot be expected to ignore business
imperatives, but working towards these imperatives they may be inadvertently designing organizations that
systematically crush creativity.
What is business creativity
Creativity is mostly associated with originality. In business, originality isnt enough. To be creative, an idea must be
appropriate, useful and actionable. It must somehow influence the way business gets done.
There are three aspects that create creativity:
Creative thinking skills
Expertise encompasses everything that a person knows and can do in the broad domain of his or her work. Expertise
constitutes to the network of possible wanderings, the intellectual space that is used to explore and solve
problems. The larger this space, the better.
Creative thinking refers to how people approach problems and solutions: their capacity to put existing ideas together
in new combinations. The skill itself depends quite a bit on personality as well as on how a person thinks and works.
Motivation is to what extend people actually use expertise and creative thinking. Not all forms of motivation have
the same impact on creativity. There are two types of motivation
Extrinsic motivation comes from outside a person. Things like financial rewards or threats for firing are extrinsic
Intrinsic motivation is a persons internal desire to do something (passion and interest). When people are intrinsically
motivated, they engage in their work for the challenge and enjoyment of it. The work itself is motivating. People will
be most creative when they feel motivated primarily by the interest, satisfaction and challenge of the work itself,
and not by external pressures (extrinsic motivation)
Managers can influence all three components of creativity: expertise, creative-thinking skills and motivation. But the
fact is that the first two are more difficult and time consuming to influence than motivation. Intrinsic motivation can
be increased considerably by even subtle changes in an organizations environment.
There are six general categories for managerial practices that affect creativity:
Challenge: Managers should assign the right assignments to the right people. Perfect matches stretch employees
abilities. The amount of stretch, however, is crucial: not so little that they feel bored, but not so much that they feel
overwhelmed and threatened by a loss of control.
Freedom: People will be more creative if you give them freedom to decide how to climb a particular mountain. You
dont need to let them choose which mountain to climb. In fact, clearly specified strategic goals often enhance
peoples creativity. It is important that whoever sets the goals also makes them clear to the organization and that
these goals remain stable for a meaningful period of time. It is difficult to work creatively toward a target if it keeps
moving. Autonomy around the process fosters creativity because giving people freedom in how they approach their
work heightens their intrinsic motivation and sense of ownership.
Resources: The two main resources that affect creativity are time and money. Under some circumstances, time
pressure can heighten creativity. However, creativity also takes time. It can be slow going to explore new concepts,
put together unique solutions, and wander through the maze. When it comes to money, adding more resources
above a certain threshold of sufficiency does not boost creativity. However, below that threshold, a restriction of
resources can dampen creativity. Another important, underestimated resource, is physical space.
Work-Group Features: If you want to build teams that come up with creative ideas, you must pay careful attention
to the design of such teams. That is, you must create mutually supportive groups with a diversity of perspectives and
backgrounds. Diversity, however, is only a starting point. Managers must also make sure that the teams they put
together have three other features:
The members must share excitement over the teams goal
Members must display a willingness to help their teammates through difficult periods and setbacks
Every member must recognize the unique knowledge and perspective that other members bring to the table
These factors enhance not only intrinsic motivation, but also expertise and creative-thinking skills.
Supervisory Encouragement: Certainly, people can find their work interesting or exciting without a cheering action,
for some period of time. But to sustain such passion, most people need to feel as if their work matters to the
organization or to some important group of people.
Organizational Support: Encouragement from supervisors certainly fosters creativity, but creativity is truly enhanced
when the entire organization supports it. Such support is the job of an organizations leaders, who must put in place
appropriate systems or procedures and emphasize values that make it clear that creative efforts area top priority.
Most important, an organizations leader can support creativity by mandating information sharing and collaboration
and by ensuring that political problems do not fester.
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