Individual who achieves goals through other
Social unit, composed of two or more people that
functions on a relatively continuous basis to
achieve a common goal.
Used to interact properly with other people.
Getting the job done whilst getting along with
Motivating employees, directing others, selecting
the most efficient way to communicate.
Monitoring activities to ensure that they are being
Ability to apply specialised expertise.
Ability to work, understand and motivate.
Ability to analyse and diagnose.
Organizational behaviour (OB)
Field of study that investigates the impact that
individuals/groups/structure have on behaviour
within organizations, for the purpose of applying
such knowledge towards improving the
effectiveness of the company.
Looks at relationships, attempts to causes and
effects, drawing conclusions based on scientific
Evidence-based management (EBM) Basing decisions on scientific evidence.
Seeks measure, explains and changes behaviour.
Blends concepts from psychology and sociology –
influence of people on another.
Relationship to social environment/culture.
Study to learn about humans.
Situational factors that moderate relationships.
Business becoming more heterogeneous, inclusion
of other diverse groups.
Positive organizational scholarship
Area of OB-research. How do organizations
develop human strength and foster vitality.
Ethical dilemmas and choices
Individuals required to define right/wrong.
Developing an OB-model
Inputs, processes, outcomes.
The combination of effectiveness and efficiency at
doing your core job tasks.
Contributes to the psychological and social
environment of the workplace.
Set of actions employees take to separate
themselves from the organization.
Extent to which members of a group support and
validate one another.
Degree to which an organization is able to exist
and grow over long-term.
Differences in easily perceived characteristics; age,
gender. Does not activate a stereotype.
Differences in values, personality and work
preferences that becomes more important over
Making judgements about individuals based on
stereotyping regarding their demographic group.
Types; sexual harassment, intimidation, mockery
and insults, exclusion, incivility.
Age, gender, race, cultural identity and length.
General mental ability (GMA)
Overall factor of intelligence.
Tasks that demand stamina and strengths.
Process and programmes by which managers
make everyone more aware of and sensitive to the
needs and differences of others.
Evaluative statements/judgements concerning
object, people or events.
Opinion/belief segment of an attitude.
Emotional segment of an attitude.
Intention to behave in a certain way.
Any incompatibility between two or more
attitudes or between behaviour and attitudes.
Positive feeling about one’s job resulting from an
evaluation of its characteristics.
Degree to which a person identifies with a job,
actively participates and performance is
Employees’ belief in the degree to which they
affect their work environment, their competence
and their perceived autonomy in their work.
Degree to which an employee identifies with a
particular organization and its goals/wishes.
Emotional attachment to an organization.
Perceived economic value of remaining with an
organization compared to leaving it.
Obligation to remain with an organization for
moral or ethical reasons.
Perceived organizational support
Degree to which employees believe an
organization values their contribution and cares
about their well-being.
Individual’s involvement and satisfaction with the
work he/she provides.
Consequences of dissatisfaction
Exit, voice, loyalty and neglect.
Directing behaviour towards leaving the
Actively and constructively attempting to improve
conditions; discussing with superiors.
Constantly hoping that something will improve.
Passively allowing conditions to worsen, including
chronic absenteeism or lateness.
Sum of ways in which an individual reacts and
interacts with others.
Factors determined at conception, one’s
biological, physiological and inherent psychological
Enduring characteristics that describe an
Myers-briggs type indicator (MBTI)
Personality test that taps four characteristics and
classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types.
- Extroverted vs. introverted
Outgoing vs. quiet.
- Sensing vs. intuitive
Preferring routine vs. unconscious process
- Thinking vs. feeling
Logic vs. values
- Judging vs. perceiving
Control vs. flexible
Big Five model
Personality assessment that has 5 dimensions.
Sociable, gregarious and assertive.
Good-natured, cooperative and trusting.
Responsible, dependable, persistent and