Lecture 1: 1. person in environment
2. the reciprocal relations between persons and environments (nature vs urban)
3. social origin and meaning of man-environment interactions (home)
4. interventions Wohlwill (1970): env. Psych. Is a response to need for quality. Is problem oriented and
working in multidisciplinairy teams. It is also has the unique potential to ask new questions,
since the environment always changes.
3 forms of relationships with environment:
- Environment can guide and constrain behavior (crowded space will constrain).
- Long term exposure to general conditions exerts generalized effects (day-night stir
our working times)
- Behavior is oriented towards environment (caring for environment or destroying it).
The environment is a source of affect (stimulus characteristics, approach or avoidance
behaviors and adaptation to environment).
Not elaborated: individual differences, attitude formation and change, and problems that
seem environmental but are primarily social, economic or educational (ghetto’s). Goldberg: premises: designers like to think about the relation between physical form and
social behavior, that is why they need scientists instead of intuitions.
Problem was confliction sociocultural forces (adolescents nowhere to go, so streetraces >
noise, not safe,…)
The adolescents were influenced by peer group influences, sexual activity and rivalry.
Therefore, a meeting place should be a full-blown social arena, and they love cars. Cruising
had strict codes: drive alone or in pairs, hot cars, found in places lot of display and rolled
down window in men. For women however: not drive alone, in pairs is open to a date, three
is not open for a date, and windows initially closed. Outcomes study: all near the car,
maximize visibility and self-sustaining. Unfulfilled premises, so the solution was never
Kaplan (1995): Attention restoration theory. Nature helps with:
directed attention: depletion in the end, then fatique comes.,
consequences of fatigue: are poor concentration, irritation, errors and unwillingness to help
Then there is need for restoration: being away, fascination, compatibility and extent (need
to give the impression of continuity). Nature has all of this. Goslin: Can we deduce personality out room? Cue types: self-directed identity claims, other-
directed identity claims, interior behavioral residue and exterior behavioral residue.
Occupants real personality by self and 2 others, then coders that work and then observers.
Extraversion, openness to experience and conscientiousness are predictable. Hardin: tragedy of the commons. Environmental problems are due to overpopulation. So:
population growth has to be controlled, there is no technical solution, this is a moral thing
and based on the moment in time, conscience actions are self-eliminating, mutual coercion